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最有可能成功的创业公司,其技术型创始人能快速雇佣业务人员。

The Startups Most Likely to Succeed Have Technical Founders Who Quickly Hire Businesspeople

最有可能成功的创业公司,其技术型创始人能快速雇佣业务人员。

原文地址:https://hbr.org/2017/11/the-startups-most-likely-to-succeed-have-technical-founders-who-quickly-hire-businesspeople?utm_source=wanqu.co&utm_campaign=Wanqu+Daily&utm_medium=website

Summary:In a joint paper with Bettina Müller, we aim to better understand the relationship between new ventures’ innovation success and the human capital of their employees.We derive our measures for technical and business skills by coding information on educational fields and prior occupations of founders and employees according to listings provided by the German Federal Employment Agency.With respect to innovation, it seems desirable for technically-trained founders to augment their firms’ knowledge bases by hiring employees who are trained in business.This advice is particularly important since our data shows that a large share of founders with technical skills does not hire business experts, which comes along with less innovation success.

摘要:在与Bettina Müller的一篇联合论文中,我们旨在更好地理解新企业的创新成功与其员工的人力资本之间的关系.我们根据德国联邦就业局提供的名单,通过对创始人和员工的教育领域和先前职业的信息进行编码,得出我们对技术和商业技能的衡量。 在创新方面,受过技术培训的创始人似乎应该通过雇佣受过商业培训的员工来扩大公司的知识库。这一建议尤为重要,因为我们的数据显示,很大一部分拥有技术技能的创始人没有雇佣商业专家,而这伴随着较低的创新成功率。

Companies that are equipped with both business and technical skills are disproportionately more likely to introduce new-to-the-market innovations than firms that have only one. However, not all firms that are equipped with both types of skills are able to profit from them. Firms profit disproportionately from a mix of business and technical skills when the founder has technical knowledge and employs additional business experts. By contrast, we find no evidence of complementarity either when business and technical skills are balanced within a founding team or when a founder with business skills hires employees with technical skills.

同时具备业务和技术技能的公司比只具备一种技能的公司更有可能推出新的市场创新。然而,并不是所有同时具备这两类技能的企业都能从中获利。当创始人拥有技术知识并雇佣了更多的商业专家时,企业从商业和技术技能的混合中获利不成比例。相比之下,我们没有发现任何证据表明,无论是当业务和技术技能在创始团队中平衡时,还是当具有业务技能的创始人雇佣具有技术技能的员工时,都存在互补性。

When you’re in a startup, the first ten people will determine whether the company succeeds or not. Each is ten percent of the company. So why wouldn’t you take as much time as necessary to find all the A-players?.… A small company depends on great people much more than a big company does. — Steve Jobs

当你在一个初创公司里,前十个人将决定公司是否成功。每个人都是公司的百分之十。所以,你为什么不花尽可能多的时间去寻找所有的A级选手呢……小公司比大公司更依赖优秀的人才。- 乔布斯

Identifying, recruiting, and retaining the right employees are among the most important tasks in the formative stages of a new business — and among the most challenging. To paraphrase Jobs, the first employees are almost as important for the future success of a new venture as the founder or founding team members. But what kind of hires help ensure a startup’s success?

识别、招聘和留住合适的员工是新企业形成阶段最重要的任务之一,也是最具挑战性的任务之一。套用乔布斯的话说,对于一个新企业未来的成功来说,第一批员工几乎和创始人或创始团队成员一样重要。但是,什么样的员工有助于确保一家初创企业的成功呢?

Despite research arguing that innovative new firms are drivers of economic growth, we do not know much about their employees. The importance of talented employees for a young firm’s success is undisputed, yet we know relatively little about how exactly employees contribute to a startup’s success.

尽管有研究认为,创新的新公司是经济增长的驱动力,但我们对其员工的了解并不多。有才华的员工对于一家年轻公司的成功的重要性是毋庸置疑的,然而我们对于员工究竟是如何为初创公司的成功做出贡献的,却知之甚少。

In a joint paper with Bettina Müller, we aim to better understand the relationship between new ventures’ innovation success and the human capital of their employees. We analyze how the skills of employees relate to young firms’ likelihood of introducing new-to-the-market products or services and how that relationship varies depending on the skills of the founders.

在与Bettina Müller的联合论文中,我们旨在更好地理解新企业的创新成功与员工的人力资本之间的关系。我们分析了员工的技能与年轻公司引入新产品或服务的可能性之间的关系,以及这种关系如何根据创始人的技能而变化。

We concentrate on two types of skills that are frequently referred to as the most important ones for the innovation success of a young firm: business skills and technical skills. Technical skills are typically required to implement a new business idea, while business skills are required for conducting market research and finding a promising niche or for securing financing during research and development stages. Our main focus is to assess under which conditions these two types of skills are complementary, meaning the return on one skill type is higher if the other skill type is used as well. In other words, if technical and business skills are complementary, firms may be able to profit disproportionately if they are equipped with both.

我们集中研究了两类经常被称为对年轻公司创新成功最重要的技能:业务技能和技术技能。技术技能通常是实施一个新的商业想法所需要的,而商业技能则是进行市场调查和寻找有前途的利基市场或在研究和开发阶段获得融资所需要的。我们的主要关注点是评估这两类技能在哪些条件下是互补的,也就是说,如果一种技能类型也被使用,那么另一种技能类型的回报率会更高。换句话说,如果技术和业务技能是互补的,那么企业如果同时具备这两种技能,可能会获得不成比例的利润。

Our empirical analyses are based on a comprehensive data set on German startups. This data matches information on startups from the KfW/ZEW Start-Up Panel with official register information on all of their employees. Established in 2008, the KfW/ZEW Start-Up Panel is a representative survey of German startups. The linked register information is provided by the German Federal Employment Agency and stems from mandatory notifications of the employing firms to the German social insurance authorities. We derive our measures for technical and business skills by coding information on educational fields and prior occupations of founders and employees according to listings provided by the German Federal Employment Agency.

我们的实证分析是基于德国初创企业的综合数据集。这些数据与来自德国复兴信贷银行(KfW/ZEW)创业小组的初创企业信息及其所有员工的官方登记信息相匹配。KfW/ZEW Start-Up Panel成立于2008年,是对德国初创企业的代表性调查。相关的注册信息由德国联邦就业局提供,并来自雇佣企业向德国社会保险机构的强制性通知。我们根据德国联邦就业局提供的名单,对创始人和雇员的教育领域和以前的职业信息进行编码,从而得出技术和商业技能的衡量标准。

We use methods designed to test for complementary relationships in order to find out whether startups’ innovation outcomes differ for different configurations of business and technical skills of founders and employees. Since entrepreneurs’ choices of partners and employees are very likely to depend on whether the entrepreneur intends to bring innovations to the market, we control for measures for firm quality and firms’ innovation strategies in multivariate models.

我们使用旨在检验互补关系的方法,以发现创业者和员工的商业和技术技能的不同配置,创业公司的创新成果是否存在差异。由于创业者对合伙人和员工的选择很可能取决于创业者是否打算将创新成果推向市场,我们在多变量模型中控制了对企业质量和企业创新战略的衡量。

Our empirical analyses show that companies that are equipped with both business and technical skills are disproportionately more likely to introduce new-to-the market innovations than firms that have only one of these skills. However, not all firms that are equipped with both types of skills are able to profit from them. Firms profit disproportionately from a mix of business and technical skills when the founder has technical knowledge and employs additional business experts. By contrast, we find no evidence of complementarity either when business and technical skills are balanced within a founding team, or when a founder with business skills hires employees with technical skills.

我们的实证分析表明,同时具备商业和技术技能的企业比只具备其中一种技能的企业更有可能引入新的市场创新。然而,并非所有同时具备这两类技能的企业都能从中获利。当创始人拥有技术知识并雇佣了更多的商业专家时,企业从商业和技术技能的混合中获利不成比例。相比之下,我们没有发现任何证据表明,无论是在创始团队中业务技能和技术技能达到平衡时,还是在具有业务技能的创始人雇佣具有技术技能的员工时,都存在互补性。

Why doesn’t mixing technical and business skills seem to work among the founding team? Diversity of perspectives within a team has been shown to bring both benefits and costs. We suspect the costs of skill diversity are higher within the founding team, which has to agree on a joint strategy, than between founders and employees.

为什么技术技能和业务技能混合在创始团队中似乎不起作用?事实证明,团队内部观点的多样性既能带来收益,也能带来成本。我们猜测,技能多样性的成本在创始团队内部比在创始人和员工之间要高,因为创始团队必须就联合战略达成一致。

One theory for why technical skills seem to matter more for a founder is simply that the average technical founder has better business skills than the average business-trained founder has technical skills. The theory of the entrepreneur as a jack-of-all-trades suggests that the success of a new venture is constrained by the weakest skill of the entrepreneur, which implies that entrepreneurs can only successfully employ personnel for tasks they are able to understand sufficiently well. While it is reasonable to assume that a founder with technical skills has a basic understanding of business processes, it may be less likely for a founder with business skills to have basic technical knowledge.

为什么技术技能似乎对创始人更重要,有一种理论认为,简单地说,一般技术型创始人的商业技能比一般受过商业训练的创始人的技术技能更好。创业者是万事通的理论表明,新企业的成功受制于创业者最弱的技术,这意味着创业者只有在他们能够充分理解的任务上才能成功地雇佣人员。虽然有技术能力的创业者对业务流程有基本的理解是合理的,但有业务能力的创业者可能不太可能具备基本的技术知识。

Returning to Steve Jobs: Our study confirms the view that the founder’s choice of employees is crucial for the success of a new venture. We hope our research helps entrepreneurs to identify the A-players their firms need in order to innovate successfully. With respect to innovation, it seems desirable for technically-trained founders to augment their firms’ knowledge bases by hiring employees who are trained in business. This advice is particularly important since our data shows that a large share of founders with technical skills does not hire business experts, which comes along with less innovation success.

回到乔布斯身上。我们的研究证实了这样一个观点:创始人对员工的选择对新企业的成功至关重要。我们希望我们的研究能够帮助创业者确定他们的公司为了成功创新所需要的A型员工。在创新方面,受过技术培训的创始人似乎应该通过雇佣受过商业培训的员工来扩大公司的知识库。这一建议尤为重要,因为我们的数据显示,很大一部分拥有技术技能的创始人并没有雇佣商业专家,这伴随着较少的创新成功。

 

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